Only a small proportion and insignificant percentage of the population work as office employees, and most of this category have a fairly high standard of living and higher educational background. Municipal wastes are the trash from commercial establishments, small industries, and households.
These are among the top ten diseases that have been recorded, which raises the alarm of a public health crisis [ 10 - 13 ]. Although huge capital investment is required to improve waste management, social and behavioural factors are also important if waste management in urban areas is to be successful.
Again, solid waste production is at the household level. This is not different in Ghanaian context, where most of the low-income settlements in the urban centres are unplanned.
He also claimed that the greater part of present waste arises not because the producer does not want it, but he fails to use it, or at least use it in such quantities that waste is inevitable.
There are visible unsightly scenes of heaps of rubbish in containers, which are ever flowing. Typically, local governments are responsible for the collection and disposal of the wastes generated within their jurisdiction, as well as for the operation and maintenance of their equipment.
Simple descriptive statistical and analytical tools such as frequencies, percentages, and pie charts were employed in the analysis of the data. Conventional approaches have a limited the ability to predict C-cycle changes and resultant GHG emissions.
On the bases of the above problems, the study has the following objectives: He also argues that inhabitants, sellers, shoppers, and industrialists dispose of waste on the street, into troughs, and at other unauthorised places. It is in this light that the current study aims to investigate community practices and perceptions about solid waste management and it implications for health in urban Accra.
While existing waste disposal facilities are inadequate to deal with the quality and quantity of waste generated, more sophisticated systems are expensive and their maintenance requirements are high [ 14 ].
According to Stirrupthe method of refuse disposal must be related to the nature of the community served, its financial capacity, the type of materials arsing, climatic conditions, the desirability of utilising materials in certain instances compared with the imperative need to utilise them in order to assist in the provision of vital raw materials.
The data gathered from various sources were processed and analysed. The questionnaires contained both closed and open-ended questions, and they were self-administered.
Adelaide also observed that disposal sites in Accra are situated quite a distance away from inhabitants or sellers. As the population of Accra began to increase, the migration quarters like Adabraka, Tudu, and especially Zongo Lane began to be packed with newcomers from the rural areas and from neighbouring countries who came to the capital in search of job opportunities.
From to there is reasonable change in waste composition: Moreover, Stirrup claimed that the major advantage of incineration are complete destruction of combustible and organic matter, reduction of bulk, the ability to operate under hygienic conditions free from interference by the type of weather conditions that would affect disposal by tipping and the possibility of using residual heat from the furnaces.
This high generation of waste tells us how source reduction as a waste management method is important. These include tins, plastic products, and polythene bags. These inadequacies lead to indiscriminate disposal of refuse into drains, gutters,and waterways, and to open defecation in these areas.
The wastes invariably consist of items like vegetables and tuber remains. Although some municipalities have allotted 20 percent to 50 percent of its budget to address this environmental issue, many still find it a challenge when it comes to adopting the most effective waste management technologies available.
These areas characterised by the large number of African population created a demand of diverse forms of semi-skilled labour. Most of the women engage in marketing activities. This study concentrated on the Nkwantanaa community of Madina, which has an estimated population of 48, They observed that lack of knowledge on the part of householders, unaffordability of household toilets, and several other factors are the main cause of lack of household latrines.
These people came to provide services to the expatriate officials as cooks, stewards, labourers, porters, prostitutes, and the like. Furthermore, Cotton and Ali found that a major obstacle to the provision of latrines in some urban areas is the small size of the plot allocated for the purpose.
Between the 70s and 90s a significant fraction of the fermentable wastes was composted or used directly in the fields. Effective and efficient solid waste management depends upon an equitable distribution of responsibilities, authority, and revenue between the national government and all the local governments [ 18 ].
Jul 08, · The use of colour coded containers to store different types of solid waste, which has been in practice in developed countries for over four decades, is reported to offer a more cost-effective waste management service, since it improves household waste separation and reduces the amount of.
Eco-efficiency is the delivery of competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life, while progressively reducing ecological impacts and.
management solutions. EPA and the states have been integrating more-holistic resource and material The solid waste program, under RCRA Subtitle D, encourages states to develop comprehensive plans to Establishing the framework for states to implement effective municipal solid waste (MSW) and non-hazardous secondary materials management.
Howtodevelopawastemanagementand disposalstrategy Environmentaltopicsaffectingbusinesses 4 Tel +44(0)Fax +44(0)Email [email protected] elleandrblog.com solid waste management, provision of near-by solid waste collection points, enactment of waste management laws with stiffer penalties on offenders, establishment of solid waste recycling plants, effective monitoring of waste contractors, provision of more waste evacuation equipment.
solid waste management contributes to the livelihoods of the waste collectors using the sustainable livelihoods approach.
In the study, respondents were interviewed using purposive and snowball sampling techniques.V solutions towards an effective solid waste